Author Biography: Elena Ognivtseva
Elena is an avid blogger who enjoys writing articles on fashion, beauty, lifestyle, fitness and recently, CBD niches. Elena has been described as a "delightfully eccentric with a creative take on things" (New York Times) with an ability to "bring you new facts that will make you go WOW!" (Vanity Fair). Elena has been writing since her uni days where she was a regular contributor to the student magazine. After pursuing a career in finance in the heart of London's financial hub, Elena has decided to start blogging in her spare time as an outlet for her creativity and ideas. During her spare time, Elena enjoy horse riding, camping and hiking, interior design and keeping abreast with the latest trends. Elena is in the process of starting up her own beauty cosmetics line in the near future. Elena is also a contributing author to fashion and lifestyle magazines and has been featured in Vice, Country Living, Harrods magazine, Daily Telegraph, Grazia and Women's Health.
The modern fad for consuming and bathing in seawater as a purported cure for diseases was enthusiastically inspired by Dr Richard Russell from close by Lewes. He despatched many sufferers to “take the remedy” within the sea at Brighton, revealed a popular treatise on the subject, and moved to the city quickly afterwards (the Royal Albion, considered one of Brighton’s early hotels, occupies the location of his home). Others have been already visiting the town for recreational purposes earlier than Russell became famous, and his actions coincided with different developments which made Brighton more attractive to visitors.
Brighton has been an necessary centre for commerce and employment because the 18th century. In 2016, Government figures analysed by the charity Shelter revealed that Brighton and Hove had the worst rate for homelessness outdoors London and is worse than some boroughs within the capital. Based on the Freedom of Information knowledge there are four,095 people sleeping rough or in emergency or temporary lodging in the city, suggesting that one in 69 people in Brighton and Hove was homeless. In a charity report issued in November 2016, three areas in Brighton & Hove, East Brighton, Queen’s Park, and Moulsecoomb & Bevendean ranked within the top ten per cent nationally for deprivation.
A greyhound racing circuit – the Brighton & Hove Greyhound Stadium – in Hove is run by Coral, at which Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in 1928. Motoring events happen on Madeira Drive, a piece of roadway on Brighton’s seafront, throughout the year. It was originally constructed to host what is often held to be the world’s oldest motor race, the Brighton Speed Trials, which has been operating since 1905. The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and usually takes place on the second Saturday in September annually.
This was built over with houses and retailers from 1793, when the Wellesbourne was culverted to forestall flooding, and solely the name of the highway marks its website. Behind Pool Valley is Old Steine , initially a flat and marshy space the place fishermen dried their nets. The Wellesbourne occasionally reappears during occasions of extended heavy rain; author Mark Antony Lower referred to an early nineteenth-century drawing of the Royal Pavilion showing “fairly a pool of water across the Steyne”.
Brighton Football Club is likely one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.Brighton was chosen as one of many thirteen Rugby World Cup 2015 host cities, with two games being performed at the 30,750 capability Falmer Stadium. Whitehawk Football Club is a semi-professional affiliation football club based in a suburb in east Brighton. They play in the Isthmian League South East having won promotion thrice within the space four years between 2009 and 2013, earlier than getting relegated twice in fast succession in the 2017–18 and 2018–19 season. Games are performed at The Enclosed Ground, which is about into the South Downs close to Brighton Marina. The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, had a student population of 20,968 in 2005/2006 of which 79 per cent had been undergraduates and 63 per cent female.
Eastwards from the Hove boundary, the names are Boundary, Norfolk, Bedford, Metropole, Grand , Centre, King’s, Old Ship, Volk’s, Albion, Palace Pier, Aquarium, Athina , Paston, Banjo, Duke’s, Cliff, Crescent and Black Rock. Beyond Black Rock, the cliffs rise to greater than one hundred ft and there are three small seashores at Ovingdean Gap, Rottingdean Gap and Saltdean Gap. All are linked by the Undercliff Walk, which has been affected by several cliff falls since 2000. Brighton has a 5.4-mile (eight.7 km) expanse of shingle beach, a part of the unbroken eight-mile part inside the metropolis limits. Neighbouring Hove is understood for its tons of of painted timber seaside huts, however brick-walled chalets are additionally obtainable on Brighton seafront, particularly towards Rottingdean and Saltdean. Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide. Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of town centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complicated and opened to the general public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as seashore volleyball and ultimate Frisbee amongst others.
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The college is on a number of websites with further buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings. Theatres embody the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia , the Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010 and the Theatre Royal which celebrated its two hundredth anniversary in 2007. The Attenborough Centre for the Creative arts is close aspire rover 2 kit turquoise by, part of the University of Sussex campus. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre, the New Venture, and the Brighton Little Theatre. The metropolis has the new objective constructed Brighton Open Air Theatre, or B•O•A•T, which opened for the Brighton Festival in May 2015.
From the first century AD, the Romans built a variety of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts shaped farming settlements in the space. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the management of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons then invaded in the late 5th century AD, and the area became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, based in 477 AD by king Ælle. “Brighton” was originally an off-the-cuff shortened form, first seen in 1660; it steadily supplanted the longer name and was in general use from the late 18th century, although Brighthelmstone remained the city’s official name till 1810. Most students imagine that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a typical Old English name related to villages elsewhere in England. The tūn factor is frequent in Sussex, especially on the coast, though it occurs infrequently together with a private name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for “stony valley” is typically given but has less acceptance.
Northwards from Western Road, it runs to the west of Norfolk Road, Norfolk Terrace, Windlesham Road and Windlesham Gardens within the Montpelier space, then alongside the south aspect of Davigdor Road to Seven Dials. From there it runs along the west facet of Dyke Road so far as Withdean Road in Withdean, at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the part north of that is a part of Hove parish. The boundary continues to follow Dyke Road in the direction of Devil’s Dyke on the South Downs.
Served by trains and 24-hour buses, it has a student inhabitants of round 20,000 college students of which a few quarter are postgraduates. The college has been ranked 40th in the UK by the Complete University Guide in its 2021 rankings and 246th in the world by the World University Rankings of 2021. Stanmer Park sits on the northern fringe of Brighton and extends into the South Downs. The largest city park within the city is Preston Park and The Level was just lately developed. Brighton has many night-life hotspots and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, David Van Day from Dollar, Adam Freeland, Orbital , and Robert Smith.
Local resident Fatboy Slim has put on three “Big Beach Boutique” reveals, in 2002, 2006 and 2008. An inaugural White Nights all-evening arts competition occurred in October 2008 and continued for 4 years until it was postponed in 2012 due to a scarcity of European funding. 2009 saw the primary Brighton Zine Fest celebrating zine and DIY tradition throughout the city. Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be one of the largest fringe festivals on the planet. Together with New To Vaping? from Brighton Festival’s “Streets of Brighton” events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up “Fringe City”, outdoor spectacles and occasions greater than double throughout May. Each May the town hosts the Brighton Festival and Brighton Fringe, the second largest arts competition within the UK . This includes processions such as the Children’s Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visible arts in venues all through the city, some introduced into this use solely for the competition.
Brighton is well known for the nice buying, with a excessive number of independent shops, which add to the character of town. Brighton Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres (7.3 ha) of land round Crowhurst Road in 1950.
At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the important fields of data we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And whereas some individuals could seem content material with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists numerous mysteries, scientific anomalies and stunning artifacts which have yet to be discovered and explained.
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The earliest characteristic of the competition, the Artists’ Open Houses, are houses of artists and craftspeople opened to the general public as galleries, and normally selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe. The city council owns all the beaches, that are divided into named sections by groynes—the primary of which have been completed in 1724.
- Although deprivation in Brighton is distributed across town, it is more concentrated in some areas.
- If the invoice moves ahead it might make Brighton the first metropolis in the UK to have such a bill.
- On 19 January 2017, Brighton council introduced they had been looking at sure initiatives to attempt to alleviate a number of the rising homelessness seen on Brighton’s streets and had been hoping to open the primary in-house short-term housing for homeless folks within the metropolis.
- A 2015 authorities statistic showed that the area round Brighton’s Palace Pier roundabout and to the east in the direction of St James’s Street in Kemptown is the seventh-worst ‘living setting’ in England.
- The highest concentration is in the Whitehawk, Moulsecoomb, and Hollingbury areas however can also be discovered around the St. James’s Street and Eastern Road areas.
Poet Horace Smith referred to as it “The Queen of Watering Places”, which is still extensively used, and “Old Ocean’s Bauble”. Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to “Doctor Brighton”, calling the town “one of the best of Physicians”.
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The new Hundred of Whalesbone, which lined the parishes of Brighton, West Blatchington, Preston and Hove, was formed in 1296. Parishes moved in and out several occasions, and by 1801 only Brighton and West Blatchington had been included within the Hundred. The East Cliff runs for a number of miles from Pool Valley in the direction of Rottingdean and Saltdean, reaching 24 metres above sea degree. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble, has skilled erosion for a few years. Below this are skinny layers of Upper and Lower Greensand separated by a thicker band of Gault clay. The land slopes upwards steadily from south to north towards the highest of the Downs. Behind the estuary was a stagnant pond referred to as the Pool or Poole, so named for the reason that medieval period.
However, the site of the pool itself stays empty aside from a skate park and graffiti wall. Since 2003 a collection of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, together with housing, a 5-star lodge with a winter garden, and an 11,000-seat sports area. Other notable Anglican churches embody the very tall brick-constructed St Bartholomew’s designed by the architect Edmund Scott; St Peter’s ; and St Martin’s , famous for its ornate interior. There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade II listed building in New Road. Brighton has six listed Roman Catholic churches; St John the Baptist’s Church in Kemptown is the earliest surviving Roman Catholic church within the metropolis. Brighton Marine Palace and Pier opened in 1899; it contains a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls. The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of solely two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom; it has been closed since 1975.
Brighton’s largest private sector employer is American Express, whose European headquarters are at John Street. Planning permission to demolish the old Amex places of work and construct a alternative was granted in 2009, and work began in March 2010. Other main employers embody Lloyds Bank, Legal & General, Asda , Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company and call-centre operator Inkfish. In 2012, it was reported that about 1,500 of Gatwick Airport’s 21,000 staff lived within the city of Brighton and Hove. In a 2014 estimate, eleven–15 per cent of the town’s inhabitants aged 16 or over is considered lesbian, homosexual or bisexual. The metropolis also had the highest proportion of identical-intercourse households in the UK in 2004 and the most important variety of civil partnership registrations exterior London in 2013.
Compass Travel, The Big Lemon, Metrobus, Stagecoach South function providers to central Brighton. Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club is the town’s professional affiliation football team. After taking part in on the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the membership spent 2 years ground-sharing 70 miles away at Gillingham F.C. At the start of the 2011–12 season the club moved completely to Falmer Stadium, a Premier League degree stadium colloquially known as ‘the Amex’.
In its original form, Brighton parish covered about 1,640 acres between the English Channel, Hove, Preston, Ovingdean and Rottingdean. The borough was first prolonged from 31 October 1873, when 905 acres was annexed from Preston civil parish. In 1894 the part exterior the borough grew to become Preston Rural civil parish and Preston civil parish continued in the borough.
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The first settlement in the Brighton space was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill which has been dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. Archaeologists have solely partially explored it, however have discovered numerous burial mounds, instruments and bones, suggesting it was a spot of some significance. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the seventh century BC, and an essential Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill. This Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. Cissbury Ring, roughly 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal “capital”.
By 1708 other parishes in Sussex had been charged charges to alleviate poverty in Brighton, and Daniel Defoe wrote that the anticipated £eight,000 value of providing sea defences was “more than the whole town was price”. Later, there was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, and much bodily proof of Roman occupation has been found locally.
Many LGBT pubs, golf equipment, bars, restaurants, cafes and outlets are positioned round Brighton and particularly round St James’s Street in Kemptown, together with Club Revenge. Several LGBT charities, publishers, social and assist groups are additionally based within the city. Disability Pride Brighton promotes acceptance and visibility for space residents who’re disabled. In 1985, the Borough Council described three “myths” about Brighton’s financial system.
In the 1970s, archaeologists in Bulgaria stumbled upon an enormous Copper Age necropolis from the fifth millennium BC containing the oldest golden artifacts ever found near the fashionable-day metropolis of Varna. Unlike many historical civilizations, there are lots of accounts of girls who had been warriors in the Celtic society. One such female warrior is Boudicca who infamously fought to stop the Romans from invading her territory . When she was ultimately defeated, she dedicated suicide by ingesting poison quite than submitting to the Romans. There are many different contemporary accounts of girls collaborating in and even leading battles.
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The largest faith is Christianity, with 43 per cent reporting an affiliation. The second-largest faith is Islam, with 2.2 per cent, which is decrease than the nationwide average.
Live music venues include the Concorde2, Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a considerable enhance to their profession after they received the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. Brighton additionally has the most electronic music events in the UK.Brighton can also be host to The Great Escape music pageant every May. The second half of 1973 rock opera Quadrophenia by The Who takes place at Brighton Beach. Brighton is the home of the UK’s first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many wealthy and famous individuals associated with the town.
In 1997, the city of Brighton and its neighbouring city Hove were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove, which was granted metropolis status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000. New housing estates have been established within the acquired areas, including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean and Whitehawk. The main growth of 1928 also integrated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean and Rottingdean, and much council housing was in-built elements of Woodingdean after the Second World War. By the Seventies, the city had acquired a popularity as a retirement destination, with an elderly population. However, this was reversed in the Nineties, as gentrification saw Brighton regain the modern standing it held in the 18th and 19th centuries, due in no small part to a burgeoning LGBT inhabitants. From the 1730s, Brighton entered its second phase of development—one which introduced a speedy improvement in its fortunes.
Although deprivation in Brighton is distributed across the town, it’s extra concentrated in some areas. The highest concentration is in the Whitehawk, Moulsecoomb, and Hollingbury areas but is also discovered across the St. James’s Street and Eastern Road areas. A 2015 government statistic showed that the area around Brighton’s Palace Pier roundabout and to the east towards St James’s Street in Kemptown is the seventh-worst ‘residing environment’ in England. On 19 January 2017, Brighton council introduced they have been looking at certain initiatives to attempt high competition vape backlinks package seo 1 to alleviate a number of the increasing homelessness seen on Brighton’s streets and were hoping to open the first in-house temporary housing for homeless individuals in the city. If the bill moves ahead it would make Brighton the primary metropolis within the UK to have such a bill. The lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans neighborhood in Brighton is likely one of the largest and most distinguished in the UK, and Brighton has been named the “homosexual capital of the UK”.
Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the our bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as an elegant supper membership. Walking from Brighton station in direction of the seafront, first is the North Laine area, stretching from Trafalgar Street, Kensington Gardens, Sydney Street, Gardner Street and Bond Street and is generally pedestrianised. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area instantly north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon “Laine” that means “fields”, though the misnomer “North Lanes” is often used to explain the area. The North Laine accommodates a mix of companies dominated by cafés, bars, theatres, and over four hundred retailers impartial and avant-garde shops together with an erotic store and indoor flea markets.
For a while it was into account for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and different setbacks, led to those plans being deserted. Nevertheless, publicity materials presented in query-and-reply type through the building of the British Airways i360 remark tower maintained that the building of the tower wouldn’t show prejudicial to the eventual restoration of the pier. The Royal Pavilion, a Grade I listed building, is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent in the course of the early nineteenth century, under the path of the architect John Nash. It is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental inside.
It was created from the neighbouring but formerly separately governed towns of Brighton and Hove. The Milesians are a legendary race of people talked about in the Lebor Gabála Érenn (‘The Book of the Taking of Ireland’). According to this work, which attained its current construction through the eleventh century, the Milesians had been the final wave of invaders who got here to Ireland. The Daniel Wakeford song “It’s a beautiful metropolis” is filmed within the middle of Brighton City, and often mentions Brighton with the phrase ‘I’m in the Brighton’.
Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex coast forms a large, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill and Beachy Head; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river, the Wellesbourne , which flowed from the South Downs above Patcham. This emptied into the English Channel on the beach near the East Cliff, forming “the pure drainage point for Brighton”. To the east of Brighton, chalk cliffs protected by a sea-wall rise from the seashore. Brighton is identified as one of many least non secular places in the UK, primarily based upon evaluation of the 2011 census which revealed that forty two per cent of the inhabitants profess no religion, far larger than the nationwide common of 25 per cent.
By 1956, giant-scale employment was supplied at a bakery, a typewriter manufacturing unit and a machine tools producer among others. Most of the large factories closed through the recessions of the Eighties and Nineties, employment fell to 1,000, and structural changes began in the mid-Nineteen Eighties with a transfer towards small-scale industrial items and then retail warehouses. Asda’s superstore opened in November 1987, MFI followed two years later, and other retail units had been built in the Nineteen Nineties. As of 2021, there are 21 wards in the metropolis of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. The old boundary between Brighton and Hove is most clearly seen on the seafront, the place the King Edward Peace Statue straddles the border, and in a twitten referred to as Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road. There is a Grade II-listed parish boundary marker stone in this passageway. Between Western Road and the seafront, the boundary runs up Little Western Street , however it is not seen.
Notable achievements embrace profitable promotion to the Football League First Division in 1979 and staying there for four seasons. They reached the 1983 FA Cup Final drawing 2–2 with Manchester United earlier than dropping within the replay 5 days later. The 2017–18 football season saw Brighton’s debut within the Premier League after a win against Wigan Athletic guaranteed computerized promotion to the highest flight. The University of Sussex, established in 1961 as the primary of the plate-glass universities, is a campus analysis intensive college between Stanmer Park and Falmer, 4 miles from the city centre. The university is house to the Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit, amongst over 40 other established research centres, and has been ranked first in the world for Development studies by the World University Rankings.
Over the subsequent few decades, though, occasions severely affected its local and nationwide standing, such that by 1730 “it was a forlorn city decidedly down on its luck”. More international assaults, storms , a declining fishing industry, and the emergence of close by Shoreham as a significant port caused its economy to undergo.
“London-by-the-Sea” is well-recognized, reflecting Brighton’s popularity with Londoners as a day-journey resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for these wanting to move out of the metropolis. “The Queen of Slaughtering Places”, a pun on Smith’s description, turned in style when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public’s attention within the Nineteen Thirties. The mid-nineteenth-century nickname “School Town” referred to the exceptional number of boarding, charity and church faculties within the city on the time. Brighton attracted 7.5 million day guests in 2015/16 and four.9 million in a single day visitors, Brighton has been referred to as the UK’s “hippest metropolis” and “the happiest place to live in the UK”. You can’t meet different people indoors except you live with them or they are part of your present assist bubble. Millions of people in England have been placed under tier 4 restrictions following a review of the country’s tiered system. The aim of Ancient Origins is to focus on current archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic analysis and evidence, in addition to offering various viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, faith and historical past across the globe.
Brighthelm gives its name to, amongst different things, a church, a pub in Brighton, some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had advised an Old English word “brist” or “briz”, which means “divided”, might have contributed the primary a part of the historic name Brighthelmstone. The town was originally break up in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne which was culverted and buried within the 18th century. Archaeological proof of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon durations.
The historical settlement of “Brighthelmstone” was documented in the Domesday Book . The city’s importance grew within the Middle Ages because the Old Town developed, but it languished within the early modern period, affected by overseas assaults, storms, a suffering economic system and a declining population. Brighton started to draw more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France. The city also developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported remedy for illnesses. ) is a constituent a part of town of Brighton and Hove, a former city situated on the southern coast of England, within the county of East Sussex. It is best often known as a seaside resort and is positioned forty seven miles south of London.
A permanent military presence was established within the city with the completion of Preston Barracks in 1793. From 1780, growth of the Georgian terraces had started, and the fishing village developed as the trendy resort of Brighton. Growth of the city was additional encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent after his first go to in 1783. He spent much of his leisure time in the city and constructed the Royal Pavilion during the early part of his Regency. In this period the fashionable type of the name Brighton came into common use.
In the Georgian period, Brighton developed as a highly trendy seaside resort, inspired by the patronage of the Prince Regent, later King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion within the Regency period. Brighton continued to develop as a serious centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, turning into a preferred vacation spot for day-trippers from London. Many of the major points of interest have been constructed within the Victorian era, including the Grand Hotel, the Hilton Brighton Metropole, the Palace Pier and the West Pier. The city continued to develop into the 20th century, expanding to include extra areas into the town’s boundaries earlier than joining Hove to type the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, which was granted metropolis standing in 2000. Today, Brighton and Hove district has a resident population of about 290,885 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485 . Until deregulation in 1986, bus providers in Brighton had been supplied by Southdown Motor Services and Brighton Borough Transport underneath a joint arrangement known as “Brighton Area Transport Services”.
Southdown have been a part of the nationalised NBC group and had been primarily based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton Borough Transport have been owned by the council and used the previous tram depot at Lewes Road as their headquarters. The Brighton & Hove Bus Company, owned by the Go-Ahead Group since 1993, now runs most bus companies in Brighton.
Food and drink related festivals embrace the standard Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more modern Fiery Foods Chilli Festival. The main Sussex beer competition is held in nearby Hove, and there’s a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area. Brighton is the terminus of a variety of London-to-Brighton rides and runs, such because the veteran car run and bike experience. Groups of mods and rockers nonetheless deliver their scooters and motorbikes to the city, but their gatherings are actually far more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia. The Kemptown area has its personal small annual avenue pageant, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover space similarly has a “Hanover Day”. Since the demolition in 1978 of the Black Rock open-air lido at the jap end of Brighton’s seafront, the area has been developed and now features certainly one of Europe’s largest marinas.